B I O - D A T A
:: PROF. HEERESH CHANDRA ::
NAME : HEERESH CHANDRA
NATIONALITY : Indian
DATE OF BIRTH : 4th December, 1927.
FATHERS NAME & OCCUPATION: Late Shri Dalchand Bhagwandas, District & Sessions Judge (Retd.)
OCCUPATION & ADDRESS : Prof. Heeresh Chandra, Medicolegal Consultant.
Formerly (upto 31st Dec.90), Founder Director, Medicolegal Institute, Medicolegal Advisor to the Government of Madhya Pradesh, Professor & Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Gandhi Medical College, BHOPAL (M.P.)
Address : E-1-104, Arera Colony, BHOPAL - 462 016 (M.P.)
ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION -
MD (Forensic Medicine)
FAMS (Fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences)
FAFSc (Fellow of the Academy of Forensic Sciences)
FAFMed (Fellow of the Academy of Forensic Medicine)
COMMONWEALTH FELLOWSHIP - 1970-71
Association of Common Wealth Universities, 36, Gordon St. London.
Award by the Municipal Corporation of Bhopal in recognisation of services in the field of Medicine (Instituted in 1984)
"DR. B.C. ROY NATIONAL AWARD"
DR.B.C.Roy award for the development of the speciality in Forensic Medicine.
"CHARAK AWARD - 1986"
By Indian Medical Association of Madhya Pradesh in recognisation of pioneering work in the field of Medicine.
Dr. KAILASH NATH KATJU, STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH SCINTIST AWARD -1990.
ACADEMIC OFFICES HELD -
Editor of Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, 1976-82
Editor of Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, 1986- 1990.
Organising Secretary of the Ist All India Conference of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, 1976.
President of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, 1981-84.
Organising Secretary of World Congress on Forensic Medicine, 1984.
Vice President, Indo Pacific Congress on Legal Medicine & Forensic Sciences, 1983-86.
Dean of Faculty of Medicine, Bhopal University, Bhopal. 1986-87.
Re-elected Vice President, Indo Pacific Congress on Legal Medicine & Forensic Sciences. 1986-89 and 1989-92.
Member,Scientific Advisory Board, ICMR, New Delhi, 1988-91.
Member, CHEMICAL HAZARDS COMMITTEE, Ministry of Environment and Forest.
S.No. Post held Place/Appointment Period 1 House Physician Surgeon Victoria Hospital, Jabalpur 1954-55 2 Demonstrator in Anatomy Medical College, Jabalpur. 1955-56 3 Curator & Lecturer (Anatomy) Medical College, Jabalpur 1956-61 4 Reader (Anatomy) Medical College, Gwalior 1962-66 5 Major in Armed Forces National Cadet Corps, Bhopal. 1968-70 6 Professor & Head of the Department of Anatomy Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. 1967-71 7 Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine& Toxicology Gandhi Medical College,Bhopal. 1967-71 8 Professor & Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. 1971-90 9 Director Medicolegal Institute, Bhopal 1977-90 10 Medicolegal Advisor Govt.of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal 1977-90 11 Member of Bureau of Police Research and Ministry of Home Affairs, Development. 1977-onwards 12 Principal Investigator of Clinical Toxicology, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR UNIT) Government of India, New Delhi. 1985-onwards 13 Member of Gas Trasadi (Bhopal Gas Tragedy), Rahat & Rehabilitation Bhopa Government of Madhya Pradesh 1986- onwards. 14 Nominated by Supreme court of India, Supreme Court Committee Government of India 1986-onwards 15 Dean Faculty of Medicine Bhopal University, Bhopal 1986-88 16 Member of the Advisory - Committee of M.P. on Establishment of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology of Madhya Pradesh Government of Madhya Pradesh 1986-onwards 17 Inspector, MCI. Medical Council of India New Delhi 1988-onwards 18 Member of Expert Group Committee of "Controlled Occupational Health, Inhalation Toxicity studies on MIC" National Institute of Ahmedabad. 1988-onwards 19 Honble member of working group for the formulation Planning Commission of the Eighth Five year plan for Forensic Medicine and Police Wireless Government of India New Delhi 1988- onwards 20 Honble member of Crisis Group for chemical Ministry of Environment and Disaster Forests Central Government of India, New Delhi 1988-onwards 21 Member of Relief and other related subjects Pradhan Rahat and Rehabilitation Committee Bhopal Gas Trasadi, Bhopal. 1988 - onwards
EXPERIENCE AS EXAMINER
Appointed as an Examiner for Postgraduates as well as Undergraduates by most of the major universities in India.
EXPERIENCE AS A MEMBER OF SELECTION BOARD AND INSPECTOR TO MEDICAL COUNCIL OF INDIA -
Invited by various Public Service Commission for selection of candidates for the various posts in Forensic Medicine.
Inspector of Medical Council of India for the Medical Colleges in M.D. (Forensic Medicine) at GAUHATI / BOMBAY / CUTTACK /NEW DElHI/ HYDERABAD/MANIPAL/CALCUTTA/NAGPUR/AIPUR.
President of Non-Practicing Medical Teachers Association, M.P.
SOME IMPORTANT RESEARCH PAPERS AND EXPERIENCE -
Study of mesonephron in goat embryos (Thesis)
Study of hair in Forensic Work (Thesis) - 1967
Histological differentiation as to the origin of bones. - 1972
Macabre suicide (sex oriented) - 1972
The sexing of human mandible - 1972
Submitted report to Her Majesty, Government in United Kingdom on human remains in connection with Archeological discovery, called "Causeway Skull".
Submitted a preliminary report on methods of scientific study hypoplastic aorta to the London University.
Guide for post graduate, leading to D.F.M., M.D., Ph.D. The courses are recognised by Medical Council of India.
WORK DONE FIRST IN INDIA -
Establishment of Medicolegal Institute in the Country (1977).
Establishment of Paternity through Human Leucocyte Antigen Technique (1981).
Identifying the theme and establish its utility -
(a) Investigative Forensic Medicine (1983)
(b) Reconstructive Forensic Medicine (1981).
Starting of M.Sc. course in Forensic Medicine (1981).
Starting the nucleus of Medicolegal Service in the State.
The training course of Medical Officers has been started from April,1982 Till date completed NINE batches of Medical Officers for training.
Medicolegal training also has been given to I.P.S. Police Officers.Time to time non - gazetted officials also sent for the training by the Police Department.
The Short Term Medicolegal Training to Judicial Officers started from September 87. Till date we have completed three batches of Judicial Officers.
Buccal occlusion line of teeth & photograph of the alleged victim (A definite identification technique).
FIELD OF WORK -
Forensic Medicine which includes Toxicology, Biochemistry, Anthropology, Odontology, Osteology, Radiology, Serology,Photography, Entomology, Histology.
Investigative Forensic Medicine and Reconstructive Forensic Medicine.
THE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DISCIPLINE
RECONSTRUCTIVE FORENSIC MEDICINE
A theme has been identified in the subject and presented in the 8th Australian International Forensic Science Symposium, 83 at PERTH Australia.
On this basis many cases independently examined and referred were solved and are reported.
INVESTIGATIVE FORENSIC MEDICINE
A theme has been identified in the subject in the above named conference and its correlated value has been recognised and accepted. Many cases have been solved by the method.
DISPUTED PATERNITY WITH THE USE OF HLA. TECHNIQUE
For the First time in this part of World this technique was applied and used to resolve successfully to settle a disputed paternity.
BUCCAL OCCLUSION LINE OF TEETH & PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ALLEGED VICTIM (A DEFINITE IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE).
HUMAN SKELETON USED IN MANY WAYS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INDIVIDUALITY OF A PERSON IN TOTALITY CALLED IDENTIFICATION
One such remarkable study on the skull was done by Prof. Brash, an Anatomist, in the famous case of United Kingdom, called Ruxton Murder Case, 1935. This has been very well documented practically in all the books in Forensic Medicine and Sciences.
The study reported is a still greater contribution because of its certainty in identification as compared to the facial reconstruction and could be considered a discovery of the year in the field of Forensic Medicine.
Etiopathology of young female burns - laying down some investigative methods.
Identity of certain aspect from bone fragments by Microscopy.
Time since death- Forensic Entomology study.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES ATTENDED ON OFFICIAL CAPACITY
Ist ASIAN PACIFIC CONGRESS ON LEGAL MEDICINE AND FORENSIC SCIENCE, 18th to 22nd September, 1983, SINGAPORE.
As President of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine & Nominee of the Government of Madhya Pradesh.
(a) Pathology of Bride Burning
(b) An Artless Art of Medicolegalist
(c) Medicolegal value of Mylohyoid Line/Mental Foraman in Human Mandible.
8TH AUSTRALIAN INTERNATIONAL FORENSIC SYMPOSIUM, 26 to 30 September, 1984, PERTH.
(a) Reconstructive Forensic Medicine
(b) Investigative Forensic Medicine
IInd INDO PACIFIC CONGRESS ON LEGAL MEDICINE AND FORENSIC SCIENCE, 14th to 18th August, 1986, COLOMBO, SRILANKA.
Iinvited to address as Vice President of IInd Indo Pacific Congress but could not attend due to disturbances.
TALKS ON ALL INDIA RADIO -
Medicine in India - Bhopal.
"Achanak Mrityu Ke Liye Chir-Pahar - Bhopal. Ka Mahatva".
"Vigyan Sabke Liye" - (A film was made on disputed paternity and application of HLA Technique,) -Delhi Doordarshan.
"Aap Punchen Hum Batayen". - Bhopal.
"Forensic Medicine Ki Avashyakta Kiyon Aur Kitni".- Bhopal.
"Apradh Vivechana Main Forensic Medicine Ki Bhoomika".- Bhopal. .
"Vyavasaya Main Romanchak Kshan-Chikitsa Main". - Bhopal
Importance of Spot examination. - Central Detective Training Institute, Chandigarh.
Bride Burning. - Lady Hardings Medical College, New Delhi.
Special lectures on Forensic Medicine. - M.P. Police Congress, Bhopal.
Special lectures on Forensic Medicine. - M.P. Police Training College, Sagar.
Forensic Pathology of Bride - XIX Annual Conference of Burning. National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bombay
Latest advance in Forensic Medicine. - National Police Academy, Hyderabad.
Precautions to be observed by Police Officers in relation of Forensic Medicine cases. National Police Academy, Hyderabad.
Rape Law Consideration - Joint Committee of Parliament on Crime Law (Amendment1980).
Burning of young females - Joint Committee of Parliament to examine the question of working of the Dowry Prohibition Act.
Sexual Perversions - 3rd Annual Conference of Sexology, Jabalpur.
External Anatomy of sex Anomalies and Medicolegal Significance. Indian Medical Association.
Forensic Medicine & its Application in Crimes and frauds (Probationers) in Banking. Punjab National Bank.
Crime and Common Man. Officers of State Bank of India.
"Medicolegal aspects of industrial Poisoning" Patel Oration at Medical College, Bombay.
Reconstructive Forensic Medicine - Police Officers of Orissa State, Bhubaneswar.
Mass Disaster - Bhuveneshwar.
Medicolegal aspects of Mass Disaster Bhopal Gas Tragedy.National Conference of Mass Disaster Management at Madras,1985.
Brain storm session on Medical challenges posed by disaster on Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Bhopal Scientific Commission, New Delhi.- Dr. C.R. Krishnamurthy
Brain storm session on Biological challenges posed by disaster on Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Bhopal Scientific Commission, New Delhi.
Man Made Disaster and its Medicolegal Aspects. Silver Jubilee of National Academy of Medical Sciences at Bombay .
Disaster and their Management. - National Civil Defense College, Nagpur.
Special lectures on the subjects - Police and Medical Officers,Guna, December, 1985.
Dr. K.N. Seth Oration at Bilaspur. Organised by Indian Medical Association, Bilaspur, 1986
Medicolegal Aspects of :
(a) Reconstructive Forensic Medicine.Association,Bilaspur, 1986.
(b) Investigative Forensic Medicine.
(c) Case discussion of Hanging, Drowning,Burns & Railway Accidents.
Special lectures to Lion Club Members, Bilaspur,1986.
(a) "Postmortem ki Jarurat kyon".
(b) "Mrityu Khud karan Batati Hai".
(c) "Mahilaon ka Agnidah Avam Samaji ka Dayitva".
Guest Lectures at XIVth Annual Conference of Aetiopathology of Burns in females. Young of Research Society, B.J.Medical College, Pune.
Suicide & its Medicolegal aspects - 36th National conference of the Anatomical Society of India,Raipur December,1987.
Lecture on Medicolegal Problems - All India Police Duty Meet at Sanchi
Lecture on Medicolegal Aspects & its importance - All India Police Duty meet at Hoshangabad.
Applications of Latest advances in Forensic Medicine.- M.P.Police Academy Sagar.
Lecture on Traffic Accidents - B.H.E.L., Bhopal, 22 June, 1988.
Lecture on Traffic Accidents - P.H.Q., Bhopal, 29th July, 1988.
Lecture on Sexual Assault - M.Y. Hospital Indore, 22nd August.1988.
Medicolegal institutes in India, their urgent need and why ? - Jawaharlal Institute of Post- graduate Medical Education and Research Centre JIPMER Pondicherym , 25th Aug.1988.
Lecture on Handling of Medicolegal cases.- Academy of Administration of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, 22nd April 1989.
Lecture on Traffic Accident - Police Head Quarter (P.H.Q.),Bhopal. 27th April 1989
Lecture on Handling of Medicolegal cases- Academy of Administration of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal 18th May 1989.
Lecture on Traffic Accident - P.H.Q.,Bhopal. 25th May 1989.
Lecture on Traffic Accident - P.H.Q.,Bhopal. 29th June 1989.
Lecture on Traffic Accident - P.H.Q.,Bhopal. 20th July 1989.
Presided over THE 1st. SAARC - PUNJABI UNIVERSITY Conference, Patiala, 1995.
Medicolegal Aspects of Bhopal Aerosol Tragedy 1984 - IIT Delhi, 1996.
Attended the 14th Meeting the Forensic Sciences (IAFS)- August 26-30, 1996 International Association of Tokyo Japan.
Attended The Third International - September 2-4, 1996, Symposium Advances In Legal Osaka Japan. Medicine (ISALM).
Delivered "Berry Oration" IMA Nagpur - 29th September 1996
Invited to deliver Veledictory speech, Institute of Cromonology and Forensic Science New Delhi.- 23rd September 1996
BRIEF RESUME OF OUTSTANDING WORK & SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION IN THE FIELD OF BHOPAL AEROSOL TRAGEDY 1994
FINAL REPORT OF THE PROJECT 08 (ICMR) 1984 TO 1992, "STUDIES ON CLINICAL AND FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY OF BHOPAL AEROSOL TRAGEDY"
Submitted to the ICMR as Principal Investigator of the project.
The man made, Bhopal Aerosol Tragedy occurred on 2/3rd December night of 1984. It was a cold winter night for the Bhopalites. The timing of the gas leak conceded with near midnight when most of the people were in deep somber. The event led to heavy mortality and morbidity, the worst tragedy recorded so far in the history of chemical industry. Right from the beginning after the disaster the medical community attending the gas affected, faced confusion in the interpretation of the observed toxicology of inhalation deaths. Further the problem was compounded by the Union Carbide Corporation timing their statements (UCC press conference, 14th December 1984).
The major key reason for the differences in the interpretation of toxicology was due to lack of knowledge about the exact chemical composition of stored material and later of poison clouds that descended on the residents of Bhopal (Bucher J.R., 1987). No clear cut treatment and management was available or postulated by Union Carbide Corporation. But a telex message (11th December 1984) from Disease control center at Atlanta informed that:
(a) No antidote known to MIC exposure
(b) Give Cortisone and Oxygen
(c) If Cyanide poisoning suspected, it should be treated suitably.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 72, 1987 edited by J.R. Bucher concludes that they could not know what were the composition of the contents of the tank, but for MIC and HCN, what other things came out of the tank, what people inhaled. It is because of lack of this knowledge that the experiments can not be carried on the animals.
In addition to that very little information was available in the then scientific literature on the chemical and biological properties of the initial reactant, MIC. Few argued that it was only MIC that spurted in 2-3 hours leak through safety valve from the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) tank E-610.
With many years experience in the investigative and Reconstructive forensic medicine, Professor HEERESH CHANDRA questioned himself the points which automatically arise in the scientific mind as follows :
(i). Why so many people died with a material commercially manufactured and stored against all norms and never it was indicated, that it could be so dangerous to the people ?
(ii). What were the composition of the contents, i.e. reaction products in the gaseous or vapor form and particulate matter that were emitted from the tank?
(iii). Naturally the question arises that, what and how much people inhaled at rest and during exodus?
(iv). Which were the reactions that took place, one after the other in the tank?
(v). What was the role of temperature and pressure during the process of reaction and the escape of the contents?
(vi). Since when the cooking of the event was going on in the tank filled against all norms and kept over eight weeks, at the ambient temperature.
Looking to this aspect of the event, with such mortality and morbidity, where clearcut identity of poisoning was not possible, the source, i.e., the spot and the remains has to be looked in with greatest minute detail possible.
There is no gas known so far, which could in the open space kill so many people and make many more morbid.
With conditions enumerated above, we decided upon to trace the events from the resultants, that is viscera from dead bodies and analysis of tank residue. We made Herculean efforts and exhibited our foresight admitting ab-initio that this is an unknown field and preserved the tissues at minus 70 degree Celsius to analyze them later when the knowledge acquired and wisdom dawns on us.
The present report is the result of such exercise which has paid dividends. The analysis which is in critical stage indicate that viscera contains numerous unidentified organic chemicals and some of them expectedly are the constituents of the tank residue as well.
Studies are being carried out on the preserved autopsy samples collected periodically since 3rd December 1984. As a part of project, work has also been carried out on MIC trimer (1,3,5-Trimethyl Isocyanurate, or 1,3,5 -Trimethyl Perhydro- 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-Trione), DMI (1,2-Dimethyl Perhydro-1,3,5 -Triazine-2,4,6 - Trione) and Dione (1,3,5-Trimethyl Perhydro-1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-Dione), etc. that was reported (UCC, 1985; Varadarajan et al., 1985) as the major product (about 50%) in the 12.5 tons tank residue and other related chemical entities.
Tremendous amount of activity was generated in the scientific world in the study of Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) toxicology (Varma 1987; Bucher 1987) after the Bhopal gas disaster event that occurred in the night of 2/3 December 1984. Everyone in the world believed that the Union Carbide killer tank E-610 contained nothing but MIC, that was supposed to be stored by UCIL for more than six weeks (Vardarajan et al., 1985) at ambient temperature against all norms so prescribed by the manufacturer themselves. Yet another dimension was added with a question mark that MIC alone can not produce such a mortality and morbidity. The autopsy findings were against it and a satisfactory answer was lacking even on the mechanism of toxicity of MIC which underwent high reformulation and reconjugation under tremendous pressure and temperature generated. One of the foremost question arose in relation to the toxicology of gas disaster, is that whether MIC, the supposed major constituent of the toxic cloud which included particulate matter has entered the blood stream of gas victims or not? The subject in question is reviewed by Lepkowski (1985) and mentioned as majority opined that MIC does not cross the lungs in active form and neutralizes as amine or urea derivatives. Contrary to that the experimental study carried out by Ramachandran et al., (1988) showed that MIC reaches through inhalation, not only to blood but can also cross erythrocyte membrane in natural form. Apart from this contradicting literature existing on the reactivity of MIC, one publication describes that MIC is ravenously reactive (Lepkowski, 1986) and other mentions that the reaction "induction period" between water and MIC is more than 67 hours at 7 degree Celsius and 23 hours at 20 degree Celsius (UCC manual, 1974).
Looking into the earliest autopsy observations of heavy mortality and the wide spectrum of morbidity that includes a variety of respiratory, psychiatric, ocular and musculo-skeletal disorders, which later named as Bhopal Toxic Gas Disease (BTGD) by ICMR (ICMR report, 1989), one of us (Dr. Sri Ramachari) hypothesised carbamylation of haemoglobin by MIC as one of the important biochemical reactions to produce tissue hypoxic hypoxia in turn complementing with the metabolism of other inhaled compounds to lead to the observed morbidity. A very limited experimental studies have been made in this area of research and this project report signifies the importance of that neglected branch with a positive answer to the entry of MIC into blood circulation of the gas victims.
Chemical residue of killer tank - 610 is more than of academic interest. Soon after the so called Methyl Isocyanate Bhopal gas leak, both the Union Carbide Corporation (1985) and the CSIR (Varadarajan et al., 1985) undertook analysis of the contents of the tank largely to understand the nature and the possible cause of the runaway chemical reaction. This ICMR project of Medicolegal Institute, Bhopal, which also had an opportunity to analyse the same material, approached it from a different perspective of establishing a nexus between the array of chemicals in the tank residue and the human exposure. For this purpose as a first step suitable extracts of representative sample of tank residue was subjected to GC-ITD analysis. Apart from certain common constituents like MIC Trimer, DMI, and Dione, a number of hitherto unrecognized compounds were detected. This formed the basis for undertaking an exercise of locating them, if possible, in the body tissues. Bucher (1987) summarized the papers published in the Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 72, in his editorial comment, as follows -
"Before one can directly apply these results to exposed population in Bhopal, it should be kept in mind that while MIC was probably the primary chemical released during the accident, an as yet undetermined amount of reaction products was also released, perhaps including Hydrogen Cyanide. No attempt has been made to recreate the accident experimentally to examine defects in animals. The technical difficulties involved and lack of knowledge concerning the composition of the released materials preclude such an approach."
We were also of the same opinion from very first day of the disaster, that is why we preserved the autopsy tissue in deep freeze. This was done with a view of developing the know how, in this unknown field - when the contents and the released material was exactly not known.
Therefore, trying to trace entities of the residue in the human tissue and correlate with available tank residue and look for the accountability to which the REMAINS could answer.
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) was reported as one of the major breakdown products of Methyl Isocyanate at higher temperatures. A study on this was published in a British publication by Blake and Ijadi-Maghsoodi, 1982, just two years before the gas disaster. In their experiments they investigated the kinetics of gas phase decomposition of Methyl Isocyanate. Two decomposition routes are observed viz.. the major one is a radical chain process giving CO, H2 and HCN as major products.
The most outstanding achievements are as follows :
(i) Looking to the autopsies thiocyanate estimation was done and found the level in the Urine increased. Method of estimation was standardised and published.
(ii) Looking to the hypoxia it was postulated by colleague of mine, Prof. S. Sriramachari that there is an evidence of carbamylation. It was established by very sensitive method that carbamylation has taken place in the exposed population with atleast seven amino acids been affected.
(iii) Contrary to the belief that people swallowed only Methyl Isocyanate (MIC), we proved that victims swallowed in addition particulate matter.
(iv) We also proved that the particulate matter that is present in tissues is also present in the tank residue thereby postulating that these substances which we named unknown compounds of high molecular weights may be the cause of morbidity.
(v) It has also indirectly proved that the particulate matter in the tank residue present is the same form in the body tissues.
(vi) The morbidity may be due to these compounds of unknown toxicity or alterations in the amino-acid metabolism.
PUBLISHED PAPERS ON BHOPAL AEROSOL TRAGEDY
1. Sharma V. K., Banus, M.,R.K. Jadhav,R.K., Rao,G.J., Aparna,J. and Chandra H.. Determination of urine thiocyanate level in control subjects of Bhopal. Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Med., 8 (1986) 1-4.
2. Rao G.J., Jaiswal A., Sharma V.K, Jadhav R.K., Banus,M. and Chandra H..Sensitive gas chromatographic method for determining cyanide in body fluids. Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Med., 8 (1986) 52-57.
3. Kulshrestha P. and Chandra H Time since death-An entomological study on corpses. Am. J. For. Med. Path. 8,3 (1987) 233-238.
4. Singh R.K, Rao G.J., Sharma V.K, Jadhav R., Chimedia N.K, Satpathy D.K and Chandra H.Estimation of postmortem production and loss of ethanol in blood with respect to its duration of storage at room temperature. Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Med., 9 (1987).
5. Sharma V.K, Badkur D.S., Jadhav R.K., . Rao G.J, Saraf A.K. and Chandra H.A typical case of acute fatal cyanide poisoning. Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Med., 9 (1987).
6. Rao G.J., Sharma V.K. and Chandra H Quantitative analysis of thiocyanate in urine by Head Space Gas Chromatography. Current Science, 58 (1989) 1103-1105.
7. Jadhav R.K., Sharma V.K, Rao G.J, Singh R.K and Chandra H Distribution of Nuvan (DDVP) in autopsy tissues and fluids in a fatal poisoning case. .Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Sci., 28 (1989) 50-52.
8. Sharma V.K, Rao G.J, Jadhav R.K, Chandra H and Sriramachari S. High performance liquid chromatogr- aphic estimation of carbamylated amino acids. Current Science, 59 (1990) 528-529.
9. Sharma V.K, Jadhav R.K, Rao G.J, Saraf A.K and Chandra H. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. . For. Sci. Intern. 48 (1990) 21-25.
10. Chandra H, Rao G.J., Saraf A.K, Sharma V.K., Jadhav R.K. and Sriramachari S. GC-MS Identification of MIC Trimer: A constituent of tank residue in preserved autopsy blood of Bhopal Gas victims. Med. Sci. law 31 (4) (1991).
11. Rao G.J, Saraf A.K, Purkait R, Sharma V.K, Jadhav R.K., and Chandra H. Bhopal Gas Disaster: Unidentified compounds in the residue of the MIC tank No. 610. J. Ind. Acad. For. Sci. 30 (1) (1991) .
12. Rao G.J, Sharma V.K., Jadhav R.K, Saraf A.K, and Chandra H, Sriramachari S. GC-NPD and GC-MS analysis of preserved tissue of Bhopal Gas Disaster: Evidence of Methyl Carbamylation in postmortem blood. Med. Sci. Law 31 (4) (1991) .
13. Sharma V.K, Jadhav R.K, Rao G.J., Saraf A.K., Satpathy D.K.and Chandra H. Ethylene dibromide poisoning - A case history. Jour. Ind. Acad. For. Sci. 30 (2) (1991) 43-48.
14. Sharma V.K., Jadhav R.K, Saraf A.K., Rao G.J. and Chandra H. Reactivity of carbonmonoxide with haemoglobin in vitro & its spectrophotometric estimation. Current Science (1990).
15. Jadhav R.K., Sharma V.K., Rao G.J., Saraf A.K., Satpathy D.K. and Chandra H Distribution of Mala - thion in body tissues. For. Sci. Intern. 52 (1990) 223-229.
16. Rao G.J, Sharma V.K, Jadhav R.K., Saraf A.K.and Chandra H Pyrolysis of the residue of tank E-610 of UCIL with reference to Bhopal Gas Disaster. .J. Anal. & Appl. Pyrolysis (1991).
17. Sharma S, Narayanan P.S, Sriramachari S., Vijayan V.K., Kamat S.R. and Chandra H Objective CT Scan findings in a Bhopal Gas Disaster victim. . Respiratory Medicine (1991).
18. Chandra, H. Final Technical report Project 08 ICMR (Studies on Clinical And Forensic Toxicology of Bhopal Aerosol Tregedy (1995)
19. Saraf, A.K. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies on victims of toxic gas exposure of December 1984 at Bhopal, Ph.D. Thesis , Bhopal University, (1992).
EXPERIENCE & SINGULAR ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION AS A INVESTIGATOR & AUTHOR OF THE STUDIES CARRIED OUT OF THE GREATEST CHEMICAL TRAGEDY OF BHOPAL. (Details in Para 21 of this Biodata) 1984 - 1992.